Positions of parts of the body

Medial – nearer to the median plane
 
Lateral – further from the median plane
 
Proximal – nearer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
 
Distal – further from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
 
Anterior (ventral) – towards the front of the body.
 
Posterior (dorsal) – towards the back of the body.
 
Inferior – closer to the feet.
 
Superior – closer to the head.
 
Supine – describes the position of a body lying horizontal and face up.
 
Prone – describes the position of a body lying horizontal and face down.

Movements of the body

Flexion – a reduction in the angle between bones at a joint, i.e. bending the joint.
 
Extension – an increase in the angle between bones at a joint, i.e. straightening the joint.
 
Abduction – movement of a limb away from the median plane (see above).
 
Adduction – movement of a limb towards the median plane (see above).
 
Circumduction – a circular limb movement which combines in sequence flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
 
Rotation – movement of a limb around its long axis. Medial rotation turns the anterior surface medially, and lateral rotation turns it laterally.
 
Dorsiflexion – movement of the foot to point the toes upwards.
 
Plantarflexion – movement of the foot to point the toes downwards.
 
Supination – a rotary movement of the forearm so that the palm faces upwards.
 
Pronation – a rotary movement of the forearm so the palm faces downwards. (Note: The terms ‘pronation’ and ‘supination’ are sometimes also applied to complex movements of the foot – a ‘pronated’ foot is a flat foot.)
 
Inversion – turning the sole of the foot inwards.
 
Eversion – turning the sole of the foot outwards.
 
Contralateral – refers to the symmetrically opposite side whilst ipsilateral refers to the same side.
 
Protraction of the scapula draws the shoulder girdle forwards around the chest wall.
 
Retraction of the scapula draws the shoulder girdle backwards around the chest wall, so that the shoulders are ‘braced’ as in a military stance.
 
Elevation of the shoulder girdle lifts the scapula upwards, as in shrugging the shoulders.
 
Depression of the shoulder girdle lifts the scapula downwards so as to lower the shoulders.
 
Lateral flexion of the trunk bends it in the frontal plane (see above). 

Links and Research

General Council for Massage Therapists

VTCT – for World Class Qualifications

Sports Massage Association – governing body for sports massage practitioners –

Independent Professional Therapists International – for Insurance and membership

British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine

Sport England

English Institute of Sport

Complementary & Natural Health Care Council

Tim Paine

Tim is the registrar and founder of the Sports Therapy UK, and has over 30 years experience in developing and teaching sports therapy courses, both through his organisation Sports Therapy UK and as a senior lecturer at the University of Bedfordshire. Tim is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and has acted as advisor for national occupational standards, to national awarding bodies, colleges, and universities. He has also been a panel member for various validations of degree and foundation degrees and is currently a Consultant Advisor to VTCT for their training awards in sports massage.

Tim is a published Sports Massage therapy author and is currently working on the 4th edition of his book, The Complete Guide to Sports Massage. He is also working on a follow-up book on advanced soft tissue techniques with his colleague and Academic Lead for Sports Therapy UK, Jade Revell.

During his career, Tim has worked with many sportspeople, in particular the players at Finchley R.F.C. He has also presented research at various conferences around the world including the World Federation of Athletic Training and Therapy World Congress: Athletic rehabilitation and conditioning for the athletes in Tokyo, Japan in 2007 and San Antonio, Texas U.S.A in 2009. More recently, Tim reported on latest research conducted with colleague Peter Sheard on the ‘differing effects of four variations of neuromuscular technique (NMT) on range of motion in healthy athletes’ at the inaugural European Society of Athletic Training and Therapy Conference in Jerzmanowice, Poland.

The formation of BeActive Clinic is the fulfilment of Tim’s long-term ambitions to create a centre combining education, a range of treatments based on sound evidence, outstanding service, and physical mobility to improve individuals’ comfort and longevity. The BeActive team of staff, instructors and practitioners combine and constantly strive to deliver education and excellence.

Similar Posts